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House of Representatives. Agency for International Development.

Japanese Illustrated Books from the Edo and Meiji Periods

The Ambassador holds a B. He speaks German and Japanese fluently. He is a member of the Council of American Ambassadors. Blee specializes in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Indigenous and settler histories of the Pacific Northwest, with emphasis on historical memory.


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Her first book, Framing Chief Leschi: Narratives and the Politics of Historical Justice University of North Carolina, , considers how an event intended to right a historic wrong could, paradoxically, reaffirm the limits on indigenous power in the U. He is the author of Punishment and Power in the Making of Modern Japan Princeton University Press, and is currently at work on a study of freedom and liberation in nineteenth century Japan.

She is an art historian by training; her research interests are relationships between landscape, architecture, and material culture and race, gender, and family politics. She has taught art history at the university level for twenty years and lectured and published widely on topics ranging from female art and architectural patronage to American portraiture to the gendered politics of space.


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  6. She received her Ph. Her main research interest is the social history of early modern Japan. She is currently working on a microhistory of domain government and poor relief in the eighteenth and nineteenth century that is based on an in-depth analysis of the Tokugawa status order. Paul D.

    Japan - Meiji Reforms

    He earned his B. She is especially interested in the changing relationships between audiences, artworks, and the public sphere in the eighteenth through early twentieth centuries. She is currently at work on a new project about copying, citation, originality, and the circulation of images in early modern and modern Japan.

    His publications cover various topics in the social, economic, political and legal history of modern Japan and global economic history more broadly in a geographical scope. All of these changes, however, caused tremendous upheaval for a people ruled by a warrior class for centuries. None of these far-reaching reforms were put into place overnight. The ideas for the reforms largely came about as a result of trips that Japanese officials took to the United States and Europe. Five years after the emperor was restored to the throne, Meiji adviser Iwakura Tomomi led a delegation of nearly 50 government officials on an month diplomatic mission to Europe and the United States.

    Japanese Illustrated Books from the Edo and Meiji Periods

    Iwakura understood that Japan would maintain sovereignty only if it embraced a certain degree of modernization. While Iwakura and his delegates were largely unsuccessful in renegotiating the provisions of the treaties, they were impressed by the culture and institutions of the West and brought back many ideas for the reforming of schools and universities, factories, power plants, cultural life, the police, military, and government. One member of the delegation was the statesman Ito Hirobumi.

    He documented everything, from currency systems to education and technology. Ito observed the role that the constitutions of various nations played in guiding the conduct and institutions of the nations he visited. After studying the Prussian and Austrian constitutions, Ito, Japanese leaders, and Western scholars began drafting the Meiji Constitution in Eight years later it was promulgated.

    In essence, the rule of law became institutionalized in Japan.

    Original Articles

    In order to maintain a link between past and present, essential to the preservation of order, the framers of the Meiji Constitution maintained the imperial system while becoming a modern nation-state. In fact, the day chosen for the Meiji emperor to announce the constitution to the Japanese people was February 11, , the anniversary of the ascension of Jinmu, the mythical and purportedly first emperor of Japan, to the throne 2, years earlier.

    Excerpts of the preamble and several articles of the constitution highlighting these changes in Japan are included below:. Having, by virtue of the glories of Our Ancestors, ascended the Throne of a lineal succession unbroken for ages eternal; desiring to promote the welfare of, and to give development to the moral and intellectual faculties of Our beloved subject, the very same that have been favored with the benevolent care and affectionate vigilance of Our Ancestors; and hoping to maintain the prosperity of the State, in concert with Our people and with their support, We hereby promulgate, in pursuance of Our Imperial Rescript of the 12th day of the 10th month of the 14th year of Meiji, a fundamental law of State, to exhibit the principles, by which We are to be guided in Our conduct, and to point out to what Our descendants and Our subjects and their descendants are forever to conform.

    The rights of sovereignty of the State, We have inherited from Our Ancestors, and We shall bequeath them to Our descendants.

    Magazines, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I

    Article I. The Empire of Japan shall be reigned over and governed by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages eternal.

    History in a Box: UNESCO and the Framing of Japan’s Meiji Era 「箱入り」歴史 ユネスコと明治期の位地づけ

    Article II. The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by Imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law. Chapter 2: Rights and duties of Subject excerpted 4 out of 15 articles. The conditions necessary for being a Japanese sub- ject shall be determined by law. Article XX. Japanese subjects are amenable to service in the Army and Navy, according to the provisions of law. That fueled a concerted military build-up by Japan, which eventually defeated Russia in battle in in northeast Asia, a victory that signaled to the world that Japan could stand shoulder to shoulder with the West.

    With Russian influence effectively eliminated from the region, Japan was also able to take control of Korea in Pan-Asianism initially elicited support from Asian figures preoccupied with shaking off the yoke of Western imperialism, including Sun Yat-sen, the father of the Chinese republic.

    It did. As Nick Kapur, a Japanese historian at Rutgers University, noted, the centenary celebration of the event in —just two decades after the end of World War II—was deeply controversial.


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    6. Prime minister Shinzo Abe—a fervent nationalist—has invoked the revolutionary and regenerative power of the Meiji to exhort the people of Japan to remember the spirit of that era in order to overcome the crises facing the country today. That suggests that long after the war has ended, a new set of difficulties qualify any celebratory mood. Barack Kushner, a historian of Japan at Cambridge University, offered two reasons why on a recent program on the BBC World Service: that Japan at years post modernization is an elderly society, and the geopolitical configurations of the region in are vastly different than in I do wonder if this lack of celebration, or more [of them] on a national level, is because the Japanese are floundering themselves with how to talk about the Meiji Restoration.